词尾有ly 与无ly 的副词辨义区别

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   (1)late,lately

   late 意为“迟、晚”,它仅置于句未或动后:He goes to bed late and gets up late; lately 意为“最近、近来”,它既可置


于句首,也可置于句未:Lately,I have read much of Shelley's poem.Here is a song composed lately.

   (2)pretty,prettily

   pretty 的意思与rather 相近,意为“相当、颇、十分”,如:It's pretty cold outdoors today.另外,副词 pretty 常用于下


列短语中:pretty much=very,pretty nearly=almost,pretty well=almost,sit pretty=be in a very good position;prettily 的意思


为“漂亮的、有礼貌的”,如:The little girl was prettily dressed.The pupil asked his teacher prettily.

   (3)hard,hardly

   hard 意为“努力地、猛烈地、紧紧地”,它置于动词后,如:It is raining hard.hardly 意为“几乎不、简直不”,它常


置于行为动词之前或连系动词、助动词、情态助动词之后,还可置于句首,引出一个状语从句hardly...when,如:


I'm so tired that I can hardly walk.Hardly had he arrived when it began to rain.

   (4)large,largely

   large 作副词意为“夸大、自夸”,如:He often talks large.它还用于下列习语中:write large(显而易见),sail large(


顶风航行),by and large(总的说来),另外,large 只可置于动词之后; largely 意为“主要的、大量的、广泛的”,


它既可置于动词前,也可置于动词后,如:He drinks largely.His theories were largely adopted by working men.

   (5)false,falsely

   false 作副词时,仅用于 play sb.false(=betray or cheat sb.)中,并且只可置于句未,如:His wife played him false


.falsely 意为“冤枉、虚假、虚伪”,它可置于动词前后,如:He was falsely accused.He treated me falsely.

   (6)clean,cleanly

   clean 作副词意为“完全地、彻底地”,它用于非正式文体中,常和它连用的有动词forget,介词over 和through,副词


away 和out,它习惯置于所修饰的词之前,但在习语come clean 中,它却放在动词后。

   a.I clean forgot it.

   b.The bullet went clean through his heart.

   c.The prisoner got clean away.

   d.I'm afraid I'm clean out of food.

   cleanly 意为“干净利落、没弄糟、准确地”,它常放在动词后。

   e.The butcher's knife cut cleanly through the meat.

   f.He caught the ball cleanly.

   (7)new,newly

   new 作副词一般用在某些合成词中,常与过去分词构成合成形容词,两个词之间一般都有连字符号,如 a new-


born baby(新生儿),a new-laid egg(刚生的蛋),new-found land(新发现的大陆),newmown hay(刚割下的草)


,new-fallen snow(刚下的雪),a new-found friend(新交的朋友); newly 意为“新近”,仅用于过去分词之前,它与


过去分词之间无连字符号(名词 newly-wed 除外),如 a newly mar-ried couple,on the newly painted chair。

   (8)low,lowly

   low 是个常用副词,意为“低、低声”,除了构成合成词low-necked,low-minded,low-pitched 以外,它仅用于动词后


,如 bought low and sold high。 The cloud hand low.lowly 常作形容词,它作副词时意为 “卑贱地、低下地”,它既可置


于动词后,也可置于过去分词之前。

   a.He bowed lowly before the Queen.

   b.They were lowly paid workers.

   (9)last,lastly

   last 作副词意为“上一次”,它既可放在动词之前,也可放在动词之后;lastly 意为“最后(一点)”,它置于句首。

   a.It's a long time since I saw you last.

   b.When did you last go to the cinema?

   c.Lastly,let me mention the great support I've had from my wife.

   (10)express,expressly

   express 意为“作为快件寄运”,它仅用于动词之后。

   a. Send your trunk express to Boston.

   expressly 意为“清楚地、专门地”,它既可置于动词前,也可置于动词后。

   b.I expressly told him I wouldn't go.

   c.I came expressly to bring it to you.

   (11)even,evenly

   even 意为“甚至、即使、连?都、比?更”,它作副词时可以置于名词、代词、动词、形容词比较级、副词、介词短


语等之前,表示强调。

   a.Even a child can understand the book.

   b.Even he was in a heavy mood.

   c.She even helped me to do the work.

   d.Even at night,he seldom relaxed.

   e.Even now I don't know him.

   f.This book is even more useful than that.

   另外,even 还用于下面一些短语:even as(正当...的时候),even if/though(即使),even so(尽管如此),even 


now/then(甚至此时/那时)。evenly 意为“均匀地、平均地”,它可置于动词后或过去分词之前。

   g.Spread the butter on the bread evenly.

   h.Supplies of ordinary commodities must be evenly distributed.

   (12)easy,easily

   easy 作副词和easily 意义相同,但它仅用于某些惯用语中,如take it easy(别着急),easy come,easy go(来得容


易去得快),easier said than done(说来容易做来难),easy does it(慢慢干),get off easy(没受太大惩罚),go 


easy with/on(不要吃得太多),stand easy(稍息);easily 意为“容易地、轻松地、随便地”,它可置于动词之后,也


可置于过去分词之前。

   a.They lost their temper easily.

   b.And he is easily hurt; he is not tough.

   (13)firm,firmly

   firm 作副词与firmly 意义相同,它仅置于动词之后,但它仅用于某些搭配中,如hold firm(抓牢),stand firm(立


稳)。

   a.Whether I lose my job through this strike,I stand firm by you.

   b.Always hold firm to your beliefs.

   firmly 意为“牢牢地、坚定地”,它既可置于动词之前,也可置于动词之后。

   a.I firmly believe in collective leadership.

   b.I had to speak firmly to him.

   (14)full,fully

   full 作副词意为“直接、迎面”,它不可置于动词之前。此外,它还用于下面短语中:full many(很多),full well(


很好)。

   a.The blow hit him full in the face.

   fully 意为“完全、全部、充分、整整”,它既可置于动词之前,也可置于动词之后。

   b.Even now I don't fully understand why.

   c.I answered the question fully.

   (15)bright,brightly

   bright 作副词意为“明亮”,它只能和shine 连用,并且只可放在shine 之后。

   a.The sun shone bright.

   b.She asked which of the two lamps shone brighter.

   brightly 意为“明亮、鲜艳”,它可置于动词之后,也可置于过去分词之前。

   c.The stars are shining brightly.

   d.The temple is colourful and brightly painted.

   (16)just,justly

   just 作副词常表示强调,意为“就在、正好、正要、刚才”,它常放在所强调或修饰的词前。

   a.He is just a child.

   b.He lives just round the corner.

   justly 意为“正当地、公正地”,它可以放在动词后,也可放在过去分词之前。

   c.He was treated justly.

   d.He was justly punished for his crimes.

   (17)sound,soundly

   sound 作副词意为“熟睡”,它常与asleep 连用。另外,它有时可置于sleep 后代替soundly。

   a.The child was sound asleep.

   b.He was sleeping sound.

   soundly 除了“熟睡”之外,还可以表示“痛打、大败、健康地”,可置于动词之后或过去分词之前。

   a.Though he slept soundly,he awoke instantly.

   b.In the football match Oxford was soundly beaten by Cambridge.

   c.The national economy of our country is developing steadly and soundly.

   (18)dead,deadly

   dead 作副词的主要意思是“的确、完全”,它还可以表示“突然、正好、极其”,如 dead right(完全对),dead sure


(的确有把握),dead certain(完全有把握),dead tired(极度疲劳),dead slow(极

   慢),dead ahead(就在前面),dead drunk(酩酊大醉),dead straight(笔直); deadly 作副词不是“致命”(致命


要用fatally),而是“非常、极其、死了似地”。

   a.The play was deadly dull.

   b.Her face was deadly pale.

   (19)dear,dearly

   dear 作副词意为“昂贵、花很高价”,常与buy,sell,cost,play 连用,不可置于动词之前。

   a.You will have to pay dear for that telephone.

   b.He sells his goods very dear.

   dearly 意为“深深地、非常”,它表示“昂贵”时,常作比喻,它既可置于动词前,也可置于动词后。

   c.He loved his father dearly.

   d.Victory was dearly won.

   (20)inward,inwardly

   inward 意为“向内、向中心”,它只可置于动词后。

   a.The door opened inward into the room.

   inwardly 意为“在内心里、暗自”,它可以放在句首、动词之后或过去分词之前。

   b.Inwardly,he disliked his guest.

   c.He spoke inwardly.

   d.He was inwardly assured by her sincerity.

   (21)deep,deeply

   deep 意为“深深地”,除了与过去分词构成合成词 a deep-rooted tradition(根深蒂固的传统),deep-rooted eyes(深


陷的眼睛)之外,它不可放在动词前面。

   a.They dug deep for the treasure.

   deeply 意为“深入地、深深地”,它常用来表示抽象的概念,它可置于动词之后或过去分词之前。

   b.I'm amazed to learn he's deeply in debt.

   c.Philip was deeply touched by what the master said.

   (22)direct,directly

   direct 意为“直接、一直”,它多用来表示时间或路程,注意它不可置于动词之前。

   a.He flew direct to New York.

   directly 的意义比direct 多,它既可表示“直接”,也可表示“直率、正对面、马上”等意思,它既可置于动词后,也


可置于过去分词之前。

   b.She drove directly to school.

   c.She answered me directly.

   d.I'll be there directly.

   e.We're not directly affected by the changes in taxation.

   (23)flat,flatly

   flat 意为“平坦、直接了当、不多不少、用降调唱”,除了在习语flat broke(钱全花了)以外,它不可置于动词或过


去分词之前。

   a.Spread the map flat.

   b.She told him flat.

   c.Dinner will be ready in two minutes flat.

   d.She sang the song flat.

   flatly 意为“坦率、平坦无奇、坚决”,它既可置于动词前,也可置于动词后。

   e.He flatly refused my request.

   f.I tell you flatly I will not promise anything.

   (24)loud,loudly

   loud 作副词意为“大声地”,常与talk,speak,sing,laugh 等词连用,注意它不可置于动词前。

   a.They laughed loud and long.

   b.Try to sing louder.

   c.Facts speak louder than words.

   loudly 除了表示“大声”以外,还有“花哨”之意,它既可置于动词后,也可置于过去分词之前。

   d.He wept loudly.

   e.What a loudly dressed girl!

   (25)most,mostly

   most 意为“最、非常”,注意它修饰动词时不可置于动词与宾语之间。

   a.I like rowing most.

   mostly 意为“大多数、大部分、主要、在大多数情况下”。

   b.The guests are mostly friends of the bride.

   c.The medicine is mostly sugar and water.

   d.We are mostly out on Sundays.

   e.He enjoys a cigarette sometimes,but mostly he smokes a pipe.

   (26)fine,finely

   fine 作副词常用于口语中,相当于 very well,它有时表示“细小”,注意它不可置于动词之前。

   a.She cooks fine.

   b.Cut up the vegetables very fine.

   fine 还可和过去分词构成合成词,如fine-drawn(画得很好),fin-e-spoken(讲得好),fine-spun(纺得精细)。


finely 意为“不错、精细”,它可置于动词后,也可置于过去分词之前。

   c.I think he behaved finely.

   d.These instruments are very finely set.

   (27)cheap,cheaply

   cheap 和cheaply 意义完全相同,都是“便宜”,但在非正式文体中或与buy,sell 连用时,多用cheap。另外,动词之


前只可用cheaply。

   a.He sold it cheap.

   b.The bus takes you there cheaply.

   c.The radio was cheaply bought.

   (28)first,firstly

   first 意为“首先、初次、开始时、第一次”,它可置于句首、句末、动词前或动词后。

   a.First,apologize to him.

   b.Where did you first meet?

   first 还常用于下面一些习语中:first and foremost(首先),first and last(主要地),first come,first served(先来先


买),first of all(首先),first off(首先),first things first(要事先干)。firstly 意为“第一、首先”,它常用来列举


事例、理由等,还可用first 代替,但它仅置于句首。

   c.Firstly,she didn't intend to marry at all;secondly,she meant to go on with her studies.

   (29)high,highly

   high 常用来表示具体的高度,它与某些动词搭配也可表示抽象,如live high(过富裕生活),pay high(下高赌注)


,aim high(目标高),run high(激昂)等,注意high 仅用来修饰动词。

   a.The eagle flies high.

   highly 常用于比喻,意为“高度、非常”,它可以修饰动词、过去分词和形容词。

   b.The President highly praised the militant unity between the two countries.

   c.This method of yours is highly scientific.

   (30)close,closely

   close 意为“接近、挨近、靠近”,多用于指具体的东西,注意该词不可置于动词或过去分词之前。

   a.Stand close to the wall.

   b.There is a bus stop close to the school.

   closely 多用于比喻,表示“仔细、紧密、严密”,它既可置于动词前,也可置于动词后,还可置于过去分词之前。

   c.Let's unite still more closely.

   d.The little baby was closely looked after by her mother.

   (31)clear,clearly

   clear 和某些词连用时意思与 clearly 相同,如 speak loud and clear(大声清楚地说),shine clear(照得很亮),但如


有表示程度的副词修饰时,则要用 clearly。

   a.He speak quite(very)clearly.

   clear 还可与某些介词短语连用,表示“完全、一直”。

   b.The bullet went clear through the door.

   另外,除了在合成词clear-cut 中以外,clear 不可放在动词或过去分词之前。

   clearly 意为“清楚、明显”,它可置于句首、句末、动词后或过去分词之前。

   c.Clearly she no longer included him among her friends.

   d.I expressed myself clearly.

   (32)fair,fairly

   fair 作副词表示“公道、直接”,它一般置于动词之后,并常用于下面几个搭配和短语中:play fair(公平对待或公


平比赛),fight fair(以适当的方法对付敌手),bid fair to(似乎可能),fair and square

   (老实)。fairly 意为“公道地、完全地、相当地”,它可置于动词前或动词后,并可修饰形容词。

   a.He was treated quite fair.

   b.His suggestion fairly took my breath.

   c.It was a fairly large house of yellow brick.

   (33)wide,widely

   wide 意为“广大、广阔、全部、偏斜”,它只可置于动词之后。另外,它还用于短语far and wide(到处)中。

   a.Open your mouth wide.

   b.The arrow fell wide of the mark.

   widely 意为“到处、广泛”,它可置于动词前或动词后,还可修饰过去分词或形容词。

   c.He is widely known.

   d.They differ widely.

   e.He has travelled widely.

   (34)tight,tightly

   tight 和tightly 意义相同,都表示“紧紧地”,它们的区别在于:动词后多用tight,但也可用tightly;动词和过去分词


前只可用tightly。另外,习语sit tight(坚持观点、原地不动)中的 tight 不可改为tightly。

   a.The door was shut tight.

   b.The luggage was tightly packed.

   c.Fasten it tightly.

   (35)short,shortly

   short 作副词意为“突然地”,它仅置于动词后,例:He stopped short.shortly 意为“简短、明快”,它可以置于动词


前或动词后,还可置于介词短语前。

   a.He explained his meaning shortly but clearly.

   b.Shortly after that the police arrived.

   c.He answered me rather shortly.

   (36)sharp,sharply

   sharp 作副词意为“突然、急剧、准时”,它仅置于动词后。

   a.Turn sharp left.

   b.He came here at seven o'clock sharp.

   sharply 意为“急剧、严厉、机警”,它可置于动词前或动词后,还可放在过去分词前。

   c.The road turns very sharply.

   d.He sharply criticized them.

   注意下面两个句子的意思不同:

   Look sharp!当心(赶快)!

   Look sharply!警惕地看着!

   (37)slow,slowly

   slow 作副词仅和go,drive,等几个动词连用,除了和how 连用可放在动词前外,它只可置于动词后。

   a.Tell the driver to go slower.

   b.How slow the time passes!

   slowly 意思和slow 相同,但比slow 用得更广泛,它既可置于动词之前,也可置于动词之后。

   c.He slowly realized his position.

   d.The leaves browned slowly.

   (38)rough,roughly

   rough 作副词用得较少,意为“粗暴、简单”,它只可置于动词之后。另外,在下面习语中,rough 不可改为 roughly


:live rough(过简单生活),sleep rough(露宿),cut up rough(生气);roughly 意为“粗

   暴、粗略、粗糙、大致”,它既可置于动词前,也可置于动词后。

   a.He treated her rough.

   b.It won't stand being handled roughtly.

   (39)near,nearly

   near 意为“近、在附近、临近、接近”。它仅置于动词后。另外,还用于下面短语中:as near as = nearly,near at 


hand = within easy reach,not near = far from,near by = not far off,come near to=almost,far and near = everywhere; nearly 


意为“几乎、差不多、紧密地”,它一般都放在被修饰的词前面。

   a.Easter draws near.

   b.Is the job nearly finished?

   c.We are nearly related.

   d.I'm nearly ready.

   (40)right,rightly

   right 表示“正确”时,在非正式谈话中更常用,但它只可置于动词之后。另外,right 表示“向右边”,它还可用于介


词短语之前,表示“刚刚、正好、就”,这两种情况中都不可用rightly。

   a.You guessed right.

   b.Turn right at the traffic-lights.

   c.The snowball hit him right on the nose.

   d.The factory is right at the foot of the mountain.

   rightly 除表示“正确地”外,还可表示“理所当然地、肯定地”,它可置于动词前或动词后。

   e.I rightly assumed that Henry wasn't coming.

   f.He acted quite rightly.

   (41)quick,quickly

   quick 作副词比quickly 更常用,尤其在非正式文体中,但除了在a quick-acting medicine 中外,它不可置于所修饰的


动词或分词之前:Come quick,something terrible has happened.另外,在习语 get rich quick(发财快)中,quick 不可


改为quickly;quickly 意思与quick完全相同,它可以置于动词前或动词后。

   a.You speak too quickly.

   b.He quickly changed his clothes.

   (42)free,freely

   free 作副词表示“自由、免费”,它只可置于动词之后。

   a.Don't let the dog run free.

   b.The books are given away free.

   freely 意为“自由、随便”,它可置于动词前或动词后。

   c.They walked freely in the park.

   d.The most extreme opinions were freely voiced.

   (43)wrong,wrongly

   wrong 作副词,在非正式谈话中可代替wrongly,但它不可置于动词之前。

   a.You have spelt my name wrong.

   wrongly 意为“错误地”,它可置于动词前或动词后,还可置于过去分词之前。

   b.I wrongly believed that you wanted to help me.

   c.I was wrongly accused.


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