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定语从句讲解(初中)(1)

【 来源:三思英语 作者:34en.com 编录:34en 热度() 加入收藏

一、定语从句的定义

     在复合句中,修饰名词或代词的从句叫定语从句, 被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词 引导定语从句的引导词分为:关系代词 who, whom, whose, which, that等,和关系副词where, when, why等, 关系代词和关系副词在定语从句中担任句子成份,不可省略。

1.who引导的定语从句中,who用作主语

  如:This is the boy who often helps me.

2.whom引导的定语从句中,whom用作宾语

  如:The man whom you are waiting for has gone home.

3.whose引导的定语从句中,whose用作定语

  如:Do you know the girl whose skirt is white?

4.which引导的定语从句中,which用作主语或谓语动词的宾语或介词的宾语

  如:The room in which there is a machine is a workshop(车间).

      The river which is in front of my house is very clean.   This is the pen which you want.

 

二、有关系代词引导的定语从句

  whom, which用作介词宾语时,介词可放在 whomwhich之前,也可放在从句原来的位置上;但在含有介词的动词固定词组中,介词只能放在原来的位置上

  如:He is the very person whom we must take good care of.

引导非限制性定语从句时,必须用关系代词which,不用that

  如:I have lost my bag, which I like very much.

(3)关系代词在句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词的人称和数必须和先行词保持一致

5.that引导的定语从句中,that可以指人或物,在从句中作主语或谓语动词的宾语,但不能放在介词后面作介词宾语,即介词后只能用which,不能用that.

  如:The book that I bought yesterday was written by Lu Xun.

 

1.关系词指物时,只用that不用which的情况 

   先行词是all, everything, anything, nothing, no one, little, few, much, some . none等不定代词时。

     All that can be done has been done.   所有能做的已经做了。

   先行词被the only, the very ,the just, the right, the last, the same, all, any, some, no, few, little, much等修饰时。

     This is the very book that I am looking for.   这正是我要找的那本书。

   先行词是序数词、形容词最高级  被序数词、形容词最高级所修饰时。

     This is the best film that I have seen.   这是我所看过的最好的电影。

   为避免重复主句是who或者which引导的特殊疑问句时。例如:

     Who is the man that is making a speech?  正在演讲的那个人是谁?

   先行词既有人又有物时。

     They talk about persons things that they met .

   there be 句型中,只用that,不用which

     There is a stranger that want to see you.   There are many books that he had read.

 

2.只用which而不用that的情况 

   当关系代词前有介词,先行词指物时。例如:

     This is the house of which the windows face south.  这就是窗户朝南的那座房子。

   在非限制性定语从句中,当关系词表示事物时,只能用which。例如:

     The plane landed safely, which made us very happy.  飞机安全降落,这使我们很高兴。

 

三、由关系副词when, where, why引导的定语从句,如:    why=for which

    I don't know the reason why he was late.                where=in/ at/ on/ ... which

    This is the place where we have lived for 5 years.        when=during/ on/ in/ ... which

    I'll never forget the day when I met Mr. Li for the first time.

    注意:先行词是表示地点时,如果从句的谓语动词是及物的,就用 that(which),如果从句的谓语动词是不及物的,就用where引导This is the house which /that he has lived in for 15 years. (where he has lived for 15 year.)

四、限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句
  1
、限制性定语从句是句中不可缺少的组成部分,主句和从句之间不用逗号隔开,引导限制性定语从句的关系代词有:who, whom, whose, which, of which等,这些关系代词都不可省。

  2、非限制性定语从句是对主句先行词的补充说明,没有这种从句,不影响主句意思的完整性,一般用逗号将其与主句隔开关系代词只用which,不用that; 指人时可用who.

     Eg: I have two brothers, who both are both students.

 

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